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Central automation disturbances cuase problems in learning

Levels of language proficiency

According to Ptok (2000), there are five levels of language proficiency, which he first presented in conjunction with presumed causes of dyslexia:

Figure 1: Five levels of language proficiency

Ptok claims that sufficient proficiency at lower levels is a prere­quis­ite for achieving satisfactory performance at higher levels. A complementary study by Buller (2001) et al. actually showed a correlation between low-level functions and the phonological level, i.e. a group of children with impaired low-level functions also had phonological deficits. Schneider (2001), on the other hand, showed that deficiencies on the phonological level with preschool children are predictors for dyslexia after these children will have started their school careers, and that training impaired phonological functions at preschool age reduces the risk for these children of becoming dyslexics. Thus, low-level disorders seem to cause deficits all the way up to the morphologic-syn­tactic level.


Buller, N. and Ptok, M. (2001). Basale auditive Verarbeitungs­fähigkeiten und phonologische Bewusstheit im Vorschulalter. Lecture,
1. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Aphasieforschung und -behandlung, Bielefeld

Ptok, M. (2000). Auditive Verarbeitungs- und Wahrnehmungsstörungen und Legasthenie. Hessisches Ärzteblatt 2/2000, pp. 52-54

Schneider, W. (2001) Frühzeitiges Training hilft. In Zentrale Entwicklungsstörungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, pp. 111-133


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